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Ancient Greek Philosophers
Aristotle (BCE 384 - 322): Topic Page
Greek philosopher. Aristotle's father, Nicomachus, was a noted physician. Aristotle studied (367–347 B.C.) under Plato at the Academy and there wrote many dialogues that were praised for their eloquence.
Democritus (BCE 460 - 370): Topic Page
Ancient writers believed that Democritus was the student of Leucippus. They are associated together as the first philosophers to hypothesize that invisible material objects—atoms—make up the universe.
Epicurus (BCE 341 - 270): Topic Page
Greek philosopher, b. Samos; son of an Athenian colonist. He claimed to be self-taught, although tradition states that he was schooled in the systems of Plato and Democritus by his father and various philosophers.
Plato (BCE 427 - 347): Topic Page
Greek philosopher. Plato's teachings have been among the most influential in the history of Western civilization.
Plotinus (205 - 270): Topic Page
Neoplatonist philosopher. A native of Egypt, perhaps of Roman descent, he went to Alexandria c.232 to devote himself to philosophy.
Pythagoras (BCE 582 - 507): Topic Page
Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, founder of the Pythagorean school. He migrated from his native Samos to Crotona and established a secret religious society or order similar to, and possibly influenced by, the earlier Orphic cult.
Socrates (BCE 469 - 399): Topic Page
Greek philosopher of Athens, famous for his view of philosophy as a pursuit proper and necessary to all intelligent men.
Albertus Magnus (1193 - 1280)
From The Columbia Encyclopedia
Scholastic philosopher, Doctor of the Church, called the Universal Doctor.
John Duns Scotus (1265 - 1308)
From Philosophy of Education: An Encyclopedia
Franciscan philosopher and theologian, whose thought represents the last great synthesis of the high Middle Ages. Through his doctrines on freedom, epistemology, and anthropology, among others.
Peter Abelard (1079 - 1142): Topic Page
Theologian, born near Nantes, W France. He studied under Roscellinus and Guillaume de Champeaux (c.1070–1171). MORE
St. Anselm (1033 - 1109)
From Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy
Saint, called Anselm of Canterbury, Italian-born English philosophical theologian.
St. Thomas Aquinas (1225 - 1274): Topic Page
Italian theologian, scholastic philosopher, and Dominican friar, whose works include Summa contra Gentiles (1259-64) and Summa Theologiae (1267-73), the first attempt at a comprehensive theological system.
Early Modern Philosophers
David Hume (1711 - 1776): Topic Page
Hume was born David Home on 7 May 1711 in Edinburgh, and died there on 25 August 1776.
Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626): Topic Page
English philosopher, politician, and writer, a founder of modern scientific research. His works include Essays (1597, revised and augmented 1612 and 1625), characterized by pith and brevity; The Advancement of Learning (1605), a seminal work discussing scientific method; Novum Organum (1620), in which he redefined the task of natural science.
George Berkeley (1685 - 1753): Topic Page
Irish philosopher and cleric. Drawing on the empiricism of John Locke, he argued that there is no existence independent of subjective perception (esse est percipi).
Gottfried Leibniz (1646 - 1716): Topic Page
German philosopher and mathematician who was one of the founders of the differential calculus and symbolic logic.
Immanuel Kant (1724 - 1804): Topic Page
German metaphysician, one of the greatest figures in philosophy. German idealist philosopher. He sought to determine the limits of man's knowledge in Critique of Pure Reason (1781).
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 - 1778): Topic Page
Swiss philosopher and writer who held that the individual is essentially good but usually corrupted by society. His written works include The Social Contract and Émile (both 1762).
John Locke (1632 - 1704): Topic Page
Locke was born on 29 August 1632 at Wrington, Somerset, into a Puritan family of the minor gentry.
René Descartes (1596 - 1650): Topic Page
French philosopher and mathematician who worked in attempting to reduce the physical sciences to purely mathematical principles.
Thomas Hobbes (1558 - 1679): Topic Page
Hobbes was born at Westport (now a part of Malmesbury), Wiltshire on 5 April 1588. He died 4 December 1679 at Hardwick, Derbyshire.
Later Modern and 20th-Century Philosophers
Comte, Auguste (1798 - 1857): Topic Page
French philosopher, founder of the school of philosophy known as positivism , educated in Paris.
Charles Sanders Peirce (1839 - 1914): Topic Page
American philosopher, mathematician, and scientist who cofounded pragmatism, made many contributions to logic, and was one of the original developers of semiotics.
Edmund Husserl (1859 - 1938): Topic Page
Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology, first came to prominence through the publication of his Logical Investigations (1900–1). It was on the basis of this book that the phenomenological movement was formed.
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 - 1900): Topic Page
German philosopher; put forward the concepts of the superman and the death of God in Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883-85); one of the precursors of existentialism.
Georg Hegel (1770 - 1831): Topic Page
German idealist philosopher who interpreted nature and human history and culture as expressions of a dialectical process in which Spirit, or Mind, realizes its full potentiality. MORE
Jean-Paul Sartre (1905 - 1980): Topic Page
French philosopher, novelist, and dramatist; chief French exponent of atheistic existentialism.
Jeremy Bentham (1748 - 1832): Topic Page
British philosopher and jurist: a founder of utilitarianism.
John Stuart Mill (1806 - 1873): Topic Page
Mill was born in London on 20 May 1806 and died on 7 May 1873 in Avignon, in a house next to the cemetery where his wife was buried.
Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889 - 1951): Topic Page
British philosopher born in Austria; explored language and meaning; influenced logical positivism.
Martin Heidegger (1889 - 1976): Topic Page
German existentialist philosopher: he expounded his ontological system in Being and Time (1927).
Søren Kierkegaard (1813 - 1855): Topic Page
Danish philosopher and religious thinker. Kierkegaard's outwardly uneventful life in Copenhagen contrasted with his intensive inner examination of self and society.